The MaaS concept in the field as of 2021: Typology of implementations based on an international panorama
MaaS (Mobility as a Service) is a recent concept embodying the integration of different transport modes and services via a single user interface which unifies one or several out of the following commercial functions: planning, booking, payment, and ticketing. This article seeks to develop a framework for MaaS analysis and present a panorama of MaaS initiatives in the Northern hemisphere as of 2021, in order to understand the practical meaning behind the MaaS concept. The analysis framework is based on a literature review of previous MaaS definitions and involves seven facets. The panorama of initiatives contains 30 implementations, of which 17 are out of Europe – from North America to Eastern Asia. From the characterization of the different initiatives, by conducting a cluster analysis, we derive a novel typology of MaaS initiatives in 6 categories.