Financial support: French applications of the IMACLIM models have received substantial support from numerous organizations throughout the year, ranging from the European Commission (under successive framework programmes) to French Ministries (of Environment and of Foreign Affairs under various scientific programmes) to public agencies (ADEME, ANR) to public or private companies (EDF, Total, Renault, etc.).

The International IMACLIM Network builds on long lasting research at CIRED directed at applications of IMACLIM modelling concepts to France. Leaving aside methodological work—reported in the IMACLIM Charter—, the first applications of IMACLIM-FR developed at the end of the 1990’s focused on the hypothesis of a double dividend from carbon pricing (Hourcade and Ghersi, 2000) and on broader policy design issues in the context of the Kyoto Protocol (Hourcade and Ghersi, 1998; Ghersi et al., 2001).

Subsequent versions extended to distributive issues at the occasion of the 2009 Commission Rocard on a French carbon tax reform (Combet et al., 2009; Hourcade et al., 2010a, 2010b).

The still counterfactual nature of IMACLIM-FR then evolved into recursive variants mobilised to explore possible synergies between the necessary pricing of carbon and pressing issues of pension financing or to produce outlooks on the prevalence of fuel poverty in prominent national macroeconomic scenarios (Ghersi and Ricci, 2014).

Last but not least, at the occasion of 2012-launched National Debate on Energy Transition, a single, open-country version of the IMACLIM-R global model was calibrated on France to analyse transition scenarios (Bibas and Hourcade, 20xx). This version departs from other IMACLIM-FR efforts by its including a highly detailed description of the French energy system, rather than relying on coupled external modelling expertise in this regard.


Combet, E., Ghersi, F., Hourcade, J.-C., Thubin, C. (2010). Économie d’une Fiscalité Carbone en France. Report to the CFDT, CIRED, 141 p.

Ghersi, F., Hourcade, J.-C., Quirion, P. (2001). Marché International du Carbone et Double Dividende : Antinomie ou Synergie ? Revue Française d’Économie 16 (2), 149-177.

Ghersi, F., Ricci, O. (2014). A macro-micro outlook on fuel poverty in 2035 France. CIRED Working Paper 56-2015, CIRED, Paris, France. 32 pp.

Hourcade, J.-C., Ghersi, F. (1998), “De Kyoto à Buenos Aires : l’Émergence d’un Nouveau Contexte pour la Compétition Industrielle”, Revue d’Économie Industrielle (83), pp. 27-45.

Hourcade, J.-C., Ghersi, F. (2000), “Le Rôle du Changement Technique dans le Double Dividende d’Écotaxes”, Économie et Prévision (143-144), pp. 47-68.

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